1.1 Project Introduction
This project will allow a user to wirelessly control a computer via a glove on their hand. Douglas Engelbart at Oregon State College developed the first computer mouse . The usefulness of the mouse has not diminished since it was invented. Similar forms of the mouse have been created in the past, adding extra buttons, scroll wheels, etc. This project will alter the mouse into yet another form. This project will encompass a glove fitted with inertial sensors to provide control over the mouse. The glove will also feature touch sensors that will allow the user to execute various keyboard macros.
Technology is always allowing users to increase their productivity. A mouse is necessary to be productive on a personal computer. Wireless mice offer the ability to control the computer from a distance. It should be noted that wireless mice with inertial sensors are not a new development. However, there has been minimal development in using the hand itself to control the computer environment. The Wireless Hand Sensor will allow the user to control the mouse from a distance as well as close range. The difference between this project and previous wireless mice is that there is no physical mouse that has to be picked up or moved around. The goal of this project is to eliminate the need to have to switch from the keyboard to a separate physical object in order to control the mouse pointer. The glove can be used from far away to control a Power Point presentation, for example. Or, it can be used at close range, eliminating the need for the user to move their hand away from the keyboard. Also, the ability to do hand maneuvers (rotations, touch sensor combinations, etc.) to control the computer will be very intuitive. The target customer for this project will be any individual who uses a computer.
Why do it?
This project's novelty lies in the usability. The project will allow the user to watch a movie while sitting far away from the computer or control a presentation without holding any extra devices. The glove will allow the user to fully control mouse movements so no physical optical-sensor mouse will be required. The user will be able to simultaneously type on the keyboard with the glove and control the mouse. Every user of a computer is a potential customer of this product. The vision of this project is total control over the computer disregarding the keyboard. A major desire for this project is to control the computer environment naturally without an extra object such as the mouse. Another customer desire is making the inserting and removing of the glove as easy as possible. The last customer desire, which is the most important, is wireless connectivity to the computer. Every product has tradeoffs. Our new product could potentially introduce lag in mouse movements because of the interfacing. Another tradeoff is the requirement to wear a glove on a hand to control the mouse which some users will not appreciate.
State of the Art
The state of the art of our wireless hand sensor entails a single glove incorporating several sensors. The glove will have multiple touch sensors attached, which will add various functions such as mouse clicks, drag and drop, and various other shortcuts. On the computer side, an application GUI will be used to program the sensors to perform specific actions, such as maximizing or minimizing windows. The glove will also include an inertia measurement unit (IMU), which will incorporate a gyroscope and accelerometer. This will allow for the user to execute actions on the computer based on rotation or twisting of the hand. The mouse pointer will also be controlled via an IMU where rotating the hand will allow the user to move the mouse. This project will be intuitive approach to recreating the mouse. The project will entail microcontrollers, sensors, C/Java programming, signal analysis and more. It is applicable to a variety of fields of engineering.
1.2 Technology Table
|Model||Cost||Power||Wireless||Feedback||Touch Sensors||Motion Sensing||Control||Operating System||Extra Information|
|Peregrine ||$149.95||USB||No||LED response||Yes||None||Keyboard macros||Mac / PC||Glove needs to be broken in|
|Air Mouse ||$130.00||Rechargeable battery, lasts for one week||Yes||None||Yes, mouse clicks||None||Two-button mouse||PC||Extremely light, ergonomic, potential pain reduction|
|Wii Remote ||$30.00||Battery||Bluetooth||Audio, vibration||None||3-axis accelerometer, orientation found with IR sensor bar||Mouse pointer, gestures||Wii||Fits both left and right hand|
|Wii Motion Plus ||$20.00||Wii Remote||n/a||n/a||None||Adds 2-axis "tuning fork" gyroscope, and a 1-axis gryoscope||Adds extra motion sensitivity||Wii||Adds onto back of Wii Remote|
|MIT Glove Mouse ||< $100||3 V Lithium Cell Phone Battery||No||LED response||Yes||Position from camera||Dual mouse control, gestures with touch sensors||PC||Uses two gloves|
|Logitech MX Air Mouse ||$150||Rechargeable Battery||Yes||None||Mouse buttons||Gyroscope||Mouse, playback & volume control functions||Mac / PC||Similar to regular size of a mouse|
|Flying KeyMouse ||$60||3x AAA Battery||Yes||None||Keyboard buttons||Accelerometer||Mouse, full keyboard||PC / Mac / Linux||A "wand" shape, includes mini keyboard|
|PlayStation Move ||$40.00||Lithium-ion battery, rechargeable||Yes||LED orb||Standard controller buttons||Image tracking, intertial sensors, magnetometer||Position, orientation||PlayStation||Wand shape, similar to Wii Remote|
1.3 Technology Analysis
The Peregrine is close to what this project will develop but it has huge flaws. The design looks stunning and attracts the customer to want to purchase this product. It has LED lighting across the finger so the user knows they did an action which this project will incorporate as well. Peregrine has thirty touch sensors attached around the hand to give various ways to control the computer. A major flaw is the inability to control the mouse. This object only controls computer actions and shortcuts such as opening and closing files. At $150, that is not justifiable. Another issue is that it is not wireless and a module exists that connects to the glove which is wired to the USB port. Typing on the keyboard and using the hand for shortcuts will not be as easy with this product. This project will incorporate mouse and keyboard actions, which will set it apart form the Peregrine. This project will be able to make a more interactive product compared to the Peregrine. 
The Air Mouse is just an optical laser mouse with a different shape. The Air Mouse is not even a glove, it is a thin piece of fabric that wraps over the pointer finger, index finger, the thumb, and around the opposite side of the hand. Two touch sensors are fitted to the pointer and index finger. An optical sensor sits on the underside of the base of the thumb. To use the Air Mouse, one simply rests their hand on the desk or a surface like a table. Sliding ones hand around on the desk will trigger the optical sensor below the thumb which will track changes. Simply tapping the pointer or index finger on the table to represent the respective left and right clicks. The Air Mouse is wireless, and operates on a one week rechargeable battery. It is to be used by those who experience pain after using a mouse for too long. It is ergonomic and convenient. This project will need to incorporate similar features, such as the mouse clicks. However, an optical sensor to control the mouse will not be required. 
Overall, the Wii Remote is far from what the goal of this project is. However, it incorporates use of accelerometers and gyroscopes in a way that will be similar to the wireless hand sensor. The project will be utilizing a 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis accelerometer to create gestures that will translate into macro for a computer in the same way that a gesture with a Wii Remote might represent an action in a game. The Wii Remote also uses an IR sensor bar to determine orientation of the remote with respect to the TV. This is used for mouse function, to determine the location of the pointer. No IR sensors will be used to track movement in this project. A gesture (or some combination of touch sensors) will be used to trigger mouse control and position of the mouse will be determined by the accelerometer and gyroscope. The Wii Remote uses two AA batteries. The wireless hand sensor will likely use batteries as well. 
Wii Motion Plus
Wii Motion Plus adds extra precision to the motion control of the Wii Remote. Some games developed for the Wii require the Motion Plus add-on. The Wii Motion plus is a gyroscope attachment for the Wii Remote that plugs into one end. Specifically, the Wii Motion plus adds a 2-axis 'tuning fork' gyroscope, as well as a 1-axis gyroscope. This project will need to create a system similar to this combination of the Wii Remote and the Wii Motion Plus if a successful implementation of position is required. 
MIT Glove Mouse
The MIT Glove Mouse project uses a camera to detect the movement of an LED mounted to a glove. The interesting thing about the design of this project is that it detects the motion of two different color LEDs (in other words, TWO gloves are used to control TWO mouse pointers). A camera is placed in front and above the user so it has a "birds eye" view of the gloves. The video data of the camera is then fed into an FPGA. After some video processing, a demo map application is controlled by the gloves. The manipulation by the glove similar to the iPhones multi-touch interface such as "pinching" where you can move your fingers closer together or further apart to zoom out or in, respectively. As a design solution, the wireless hand sensor can be implemented using a camera to control the mouse. The major issue with using a camera system is that it effects portability.This project is worthwhile to study because of the control gestures. 
Logitech MX Air Mouse
The Logitech MX Air Mouse is still a mouse, with added functionality. It includes a gyroscope to allow the user to pick up the mouse and have control over the pointer while the mouse is in the air. The mouse also includes many more buttons than a traditional mouse. There are several buttons that allow for volume control and other video playback functions. This unit provides "in-air" control of the mouse, which this project will be implementing. The Logitech MX Air Mouse communicates to the PC via 2.4GHz RF to a USB receiver. The major issue with this mouse is not being able to be independent of using a mouse. One may be able to move around with the mouse in their hand but it still has to be grabbed onto. This issue decreases comfortability which the wireless hand sensor will increase. 
Wireless Flying Key Mouse
The USB Brando Wireless Flying Key Mouse is a flat wand shaped device allows a user to control the mouse pointer by utilizing an accelerometer. The wand also has a full mini keyboard on one side. The device attempts to integrate the keyboard and the mouse into one object. The size of this product is larger than a human hand. The size can be compared to a remote control for a TV. This device can be assumed to have low comfort ratings because of its size. The project attempts to incorporate every aspect of a computer into one controller. Their is too many buttons in a small device which can be a major issue for individuals with larger fingers. The wireless hand sensor is independent of finger size and only depends on glove size. If the right glove is use then this issue is nonexistent. 
Play Station Move Controller
The Play Station Move Controller is similar to the Wii Remote. It has the shape of a microphone, except the top of it is a large LED orb that can change between several colors. The Play Station Eye, a sensor that sits on top of the TV is used to detect the LED orb. When the LED orb is out of sight, inertial sensors help track the movement of the controller. A magnetometer is used to calibrate the orientation of the controller using the Earth's magnetic field. This helps to correct the growing error that is created over time from the inertial sensors. The sensor system is basically a camera mapping system which detects the orb as it moves. One of the major design solutions to this project is the use of a camera on a computer to map the users hand movements. The issue with the Move controller is that it is rather large compared to its competition. The wireless hand sensor will be much smaller then the Move. 
1.4 Design Requirements
1. The weight of the entire glove system should be less than or equal to 1 pound.
2. Data sampling rate with at least 50 data samples per second which include all angle measurements required. One sample includes pitch and yaw measurements which translate to X and Y movement of the mouse.
3. At least 4 touch sensor inputs that are incorporated into the glove. These determine mouse clicks and operating system macros. They have 2 states (ON or OFF).
4. Sense glove rotation @ 2000 degrees/second with ±4g's (pitch, yaw, roll).
5. GUI so customers can easily see and change the function of glove buttons. Image of a glove will be present so user can change interactively.
6. Enclosure for sensor hardware which hides circuitry from customer. Enclosure will be same color as glove. Size is 4.5x4.5 inches.
Easy to set up/Use
7. One calibration/reset button present. System calibration time is less then 1 second.
8. PDF Documentation of operation/installation. Documents will guide user through set up and basic operation.
9. Variable glove sensitivity. 5 possible levels ranging from low to high for speed of mouse movement.
10. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) present to program the sensitivity of the mouse and what each touch sensor will do on the computer.
11. Rechargeable battery circuit operating on a battery. Recharges from 10% to 90% capacity in no more than 10 hours.
12. Recharge battery circuit operates on USB @ 5v < 400mA.
13. Once opening the application GUI, the system is operational in under 10 seconds.
14. Compatible with Windows 7.
15. Compatible with Mac OSX 10.6 and above.
16. Wireless transmission, Wifi at 54MBits/second max.
17. Wireless device operation from a distance up to 25 feet from the PC receiver.
18. Direct link wireless communication with 802.11g protocol.
19. Battery powered with a effective lifetime of at least 2 hours.
20. Total cost must be less than or equal to $200 to build one wireless hand sensor.
Safe to use
21. Sensor hardware must remain within 10 degrees C of room temperature.
22. A PCB will be made that is 4x4 inches or less.
23. One power button which activates entire system in less than 10 seconds.
24. Sense double tap gestures. Detect tapping which produces > 1g of force.
25. At least 5 LEDs that show the current state of the system (one is ON/OFF state, one for each touch sensor, and one is calibration).
|Type||Range||Benefits||Hardware Requirements||Max Speed|
|Wifi 802.11g||300 ft Xbee||Easy to setup. Reliable. Small size.||Microcontroller and USB on computer||54 MB/s|
|Bluetooth||100 m, 200 m, 300 m||Any device can control such as phone||Bluetooth build on computer||2.1 MB/s|
Types of Accelerometers
|Model||Cost||Sensitivity||Vinput||# of Axis||Scale Range||Benefits|
|ADXL335||$24.95||330 mV/g||1.8 - 3.6||3||+-3g||Low power. Simple. Already have one of these.|
|ADXL345||$27.95||232 to 29 counts/g||2.0 to 3.6 V||3||+- 16g||Low power. Extra features (free fall detection). I2C connection.|
|MMA7361L||$19.95||800 mv/g||3.3V||3||+- 1.5 g||Low power. Good accelerometer. Analog in.|
|LIS331HH||$27.95||100 counts/g||2.5V||3||+-6g/+-12g/+-24g||Extra features (unnecessary). I2C connection. Variable range selection (unnecessary).|
|ADXL320||$13.95||174 mv/g||3.3 or 5 V||2 (XY)||+-5g||Analog in (good). 2 axis (bad maybe).|
Types of Gyroscopes
|Model||Cost||Sensitivity (deg/s)||Vinput||# of Axis||Type of Output||Benefits|
|ITG3200||$49.95||+-2000||2.4 - 5.25 V||3||I2C||Made by invensense. Have free sample products. Good gyro.|
|L3G4200D||$49.95||+-2000||3.0||3||Digital out||Normal and low requirements. Digital output - good for uC.|
|IMU3000||$49.95||2000||3.3||3||I2C||3 of these for free. Will test. Strong gyro for our case.|
|MPU3000||Unknown||Changeable (up to 2000)||2.1 to 3.6||3||I2C||Will get some from company.|
|IDG650||$19.95||2000||3.3||2 (XY)||I2C||Currently in use. Strong gyro but 2 axis.|
Types of Glove Sensors
|Force Sensitive Resistor||$5.95||0.5 inch||2.5k to 1M||Touch sensor||Small. Cheap. Each finger tip can have one.|
|Flex Sensor||$12.95||4,5 inch||10K to 110K||Flexing||Attached to whole finger. Breaks easily. Not many actions with it.|
1. "Evolution of the Mouse." Internet: http://weburbanist.com/, [October 11, 2011].
2. "Home | The Peregrine." Internet: http://theperegrine.com/, [October 16, 2011].
3. "Wii Remote" Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wii_Remote, [October 16, 2011].
4. "Wii Motion Plus" Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wii_MotionPlus, [October 16, 2011].
5. "MIT Glove Mouse." Internet: http://web.mit.edu/, [October 16, 2011].
6. "Air Mouse." Internet: http://theairmouse.com/, [October 16, 2011].
7. "Wireless Flying Key Mouse." Internet: http://usb.brando.com/, [October 16, 2011].
8. "Logitech MX Air Mouse." Internet: http://reviews.cnet.com/, [October 16, 2011].
9. "Playstation Move." Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PlayStation_Move, [October 16, 2011].